ajuga integrifolia benefits

Overnight fasted STZ-induced diabetic mice were grouped into 6 groups (6 mice per groups) at random. Ajuga parviflora is a type of bugleweed that is found in places like Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and the disputed Kashmir region. A standard drug in all cases was glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), and the blood glucose level was measured by using a glucose meter. Diabetes and its complications caused significant deaths which are estimated to be 4.2 million in 2019. As far as the major finding of this investigation is concerned, Ajuga integrifolia root extract has antihyperglycemic activities. The leaves of the ajuga hold close together, which keeps them nice and short. Male mice were used in all mice models (normoglycemic, oral glucose loaded, one dose treated diabetic, and repeated dose treated diabetic mice) because female mice are less sensitive to insulin [21] and STZ compared to male mice [20, 22]. Management of DM includes diet modification, exercise, weight loss, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin; however, none of them can treat the underlying cause of the disease nor can they cure the illness consequently [2, 3, 6]. How to Grow Bugleweed / Ajuga It is best to sow on the soil surface, then cover Ajuga seeds with a light dusting of soil on top. For each mouse, baseline BGL was determined prior to treatment (at 0 hr). Mice were screened for diabetes after 3 days of STZ injection, and fasting BGL > 200 mg/dl was included in the study as diabetic mice [25, 26]. Next, mice were given DW, root crude extract of the plant, and GLC according to grouping stated above. Pues sí: Ajuga integrifolia var. Unlike lawn grasses that need regular applications of high-nitrogen fertilizer, Ajuga would prefer an annual feeding in late spring or early winter with a natural or organic plant food. The doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg AIRE reduced fasting BGL with a magnitude of 16.10%, 21.6%, and 26.4% after 7th day of treatment and 18.5%, 24.6%, and 28.8% after 14th day of treatment compared to the respective baseline BGL. Antihyperglycemic mechanism(s) of action of Ajuga integrifolia might be attributed to potentiating of the effect of insulin either by escalating the release of insulin from β-cells of pancreas, increasing the utilization of glucose by peripheral tissue, reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis, inhibiting metabolic degradations of carbohydrates, or by preventing oxidative stress [43]. The fasting BGL of the normal control groups, however, did not exhibit remarkable change throughout the study period. They should be spaced 15 to 30 cm apart in the spring or autumn. Overnight fasted mice were divided into 5 groups (6 mice in each group) at random. Next, group 1 received 10 ml/kg DW; groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with hydromethanolic root extract of the plant of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively, whereas group 5 received 5 mg/kg GLC. The activity of repeated daily doses of aqueous fraction of AIRE against hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Between groups analysis revealed that 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg AIRE significantly decreased hyperglycemia at the 2nd hr compared to the BGL at 30 minutes and the negative control group, whereas 5 mg/kg GLC showed a significant reduction of hyperglycemia at 1st hr and 2nd hr of glucose administration compared to the negative control group and 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg AIRE-treated groups. Then, group 1 used as diabetic control received 10 ml/kg DW; groups 2, 3, and 4 used as diabetic test groups received three doses of aqueous fraction (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively); group 5 diabetic positive control was treated with 5 mg/kg GLC, and group 6 normal control was treated with 10 ml/kg DW once daily for 14 days. Escrito por Micaela Pérez el 12 diciembre, 2012. Resource Type. The nodes of the stolons are also very short, which creates very dense colonies ideal for preventing weeds from growing up through the plants. In East Africa, plants of the genus Ajuga have been used as a remedy for fever, toothache, severe stomachache, dysentery, high blood pressure, malaria, edema, pneumonia and liver problems [4, 10]. Finally, 12 g hexane and 17 g of chloroform fractions and 2 g of oleaginous jelly matter were obtained with the remaining 69 g being aqueous fraction. No obstante sólo debe usarse el nombre científico aceptado, quedando dichas sinonimias como referencias a textos antiguos, no actualizados o bases de conocimiento. All the authors approved the submitted version of the manuscript. It is usually used to detect persons at risk of prediabetes and diabetes [39, 40]. According to between groups analysis, it was observed that 100 mg/kg AIRE did not improve bodyweight at the7th day and14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control, but at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, AIRE improved significantly the bodyweight of the mice () at the 7th day and () at the 14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control. Ethical approval was received from the Research and Ethics Committee of Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar (school of pharmacy 12-112-2012). Flora of Tropical … Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K) Collection. Compared to both the baseline and negative control values, the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg chloroform and n-hexane fractions revealed no significant difference in BGL (Table 6). Mice were treated with ethyl acetate extract of Ajuga bracteosa (Ab-EAE) (100, 200 300 & 400 mg/kg bw) for 30 days. Ajuga Integrifolia, Traditional Medicine for Malaria and Other Diseases As I was shopping for house plants the other day, I engaged the nursery attendant on his knowledge of medicinal herbs. Hence, it can be concluded that Ajuga integrifolia, especially at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of bodyweight of both the crude extract and aqueous solvent fraction, is remarkably effective against STZ-induced diabetic mice models as well as in the oral glucose loaded mice models, thereby validating its ethnomedicinal usage. Compared to baseline, fasting BGL was reduced by GLC, with percentage reduction of 60.8% and 65.2% after 7th day and 14th day of treatment, respectively. Between groups analysis showed no significant difference in baseline fasting BGL throughout groups. III. Compared to repeated daily doses at 7th day and 14th day, single dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg AIRE showed lesser reduction of fasting BGL at 6th hr and 8th hr supporting that the repeated daily doses of AIRE have better antidiabetic activity than the single dose. GLC 5 mg/kg reduced BGL significantly at 2nd hr (), 4th hr (), 6th hr (), and 8th hr () compared to the respective baselines. The investigation implied that the single dose and repeated daily doses of aqueous fraction and repeated daily doses of crude extract have a comparable blood glucose lowering ability. According to the limit test of OECD No. The fasting BGL of the diabetic control was increased on the 7th day and 14th day of treatment compared to the baseline value. Loài này được Buch.-Ham. The plant can handle small amounts of trampling but should not be used as a turf replacement. Box 272, Debre Tabor, Amhara, Ethiopia. Traditional healers and the community have used the roots of Ajuga integrifolia for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. The data were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (M ± SEM). The worldwide prevalence of DM is estimated to rise to 578 million in 2030. Between groups analysis depicted that bodyweight loss of the diabetic control mice was significant at 7th day and 14th day compared to the aqueous fraction treated groups, normal control group, and GLC-treated group (Table 8). The coarse powdered roots of the plant were macerated in 80% methanol in a ratio of 750 g of sample material: 7.5 liters of solvent (w/v) separately. The remaining aqueous residue was lyophilized to obtain pure aqueous fraction, placed in a third beaker and labeled as “aqueous fraction,” and the n-hexane and chloroform fractions were allowed to concentrate in an oven under a temperature set at 40°C. The study was conducted based on the recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [28]. 1. It was screened phytochemically and reported that terpenoides, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, phenols, and saponins were most commonly isolated biologically active principles responsible for its medicinal properties [13]. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Moreover, there was a statistically significant () and () reduction of BGL in the GLC-treated group at 7th day and 14th day, respectively, compared to baseline values with around 61.30% and 64.10% reduction, respectively. It reduced fasting BGL considerably at these time points compared to the diabetic control as well. Fasting BGL was reduced significantly at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg aqueous fraction of AIR at 7th day and 14th day compared to the 100 mg/kg treated group and the diabetic control (Table 7). In North Africa, plants of the genus Ajuga are used to treat diabetes and hypertension, as a panacea (cure-all), specifically for gastrointestinal disorders, and as an anthelmintic [ 10 ]. T. Bekele, A. Hymete, M. Tadesse, and Y. Mekonnen, D. Bekeri, L. Adane, and F. Mamo, “Phytochemical investigation and isolation of compounds from ajuga integrifolia root extract,”, U. Asmat, K. Abad, and K. Ismail, “Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress-a concise review,”, P. Pérez-Matute, M. A. Zulet, and J. Between and within group analysis were performed to notice difference in BGL throughout various groups and time points, respectively (Table 3). It causes pancreatic β-cell destruction via DNA alkylation and strand breakage, thereby causing diabetes mellitus [36, 37]. Drugs and chemicals used in the study were streptozotocin (Sigma Aldrich, Germany), methanol absolute (Nice Chemical, India), glibenclamide (Julphar pharmaceutical, Ethiopia), trisodium citrate dehydrate (Blulux Laboratories, India), citric acid monohydrate (Lab Tech chemical, India), 40% glucose solution (Reyoung Pharmaceutical, China), sterilized water for injections (Nirman Ltd., India), and distilled water, whereas the instruments used in this study were analytical balance, pH meter, glucometer and test strips (Alliance international, Taiwan), beakers, Whatman filter paper No.1, funnels, glass rod, measuring cylinder, vacuum pump, spatula, pipettes, gavage (oral feeding syringe), animal cages, insulin syringe with needle, oven, and desiccators. In comparison to the normal control, STZ caused a significant loss of bodyweight in the diabetic control at 7th day and 14th day of treatment. In Ethiopia, Ajuga integrifolia occurs in different regions including Amhara, Southern Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Tigray, and Oromia [12]. Ajuga és un gènere d'unes 40 - 50 espècies d'angiospermes, caduques i perennes de la família lamiaceae. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Mice fasted for about 16 hr were divided into 5 different groups (each group comprised of 6 mice) at random. The reduction of fasting BGL in the GLC-treated group was significant (), with a reduction of 24.19%, 37.8%, 48.4%, and 65.2% at the 2nd hr, 4th hr, 6th hr, and 8th hr compared to their baseline values. When AIRE-treated groups were compared to the negative control, they did not show a statistically significant reduction in BGL at all time points except at the 8th hour. SPSS version 21 software was used to do statistical analysis. Uptake of, S. Andrikopoulos, A. R. Blair, N. Deluca, B. C. Fam, and J. Proietto, “Evaluating the glucose tolerance test in mice,”, M. Anitha, G. Sakthidevi, S. Muthukumarasamy, and V. R. Mohan, “Effect of Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vehl ex Hornem) Thunb. Moreover, in repeated daily dose experiment, the GLC-treated group showed a significant reduction in BGL at 7th day and 14th day compared to groups that received various doses of aqueous fraction and crude extract of Ajuga integrifolia root. The activity of repeated daily doses of crude extract of AIRE on hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The basis of the abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in diabetes is insufficient action of insulin on target tissues [3, 4]. Medicinal plants are among the most common sources and mainstay options of medicines for about 75–80% of world population [30]. Molalegne Alene, Mohammedbrhan Abdelwuhab, Assefa Belay, and Taklo Simeneh Yazie were involved in the design and write up of the study. The chloroform and n-hexane fractions did not demonstrate a noticeable antihyperglycemic activity. The AIRE 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg reduced fasting BGL significantly at the 7th day and 14th day compared to the baseline value. For fractionation, 100 g of methanol crude extract was suspended in a separatory funnel with 400 ml of distilled water. canescens es una sinonimia del nombre aceptado como Ajuga integrifolia. Then, the n-hexane layer so formed was poured into a beaker and labeled as “n-hexane fraction.” The aqueous remainder was again mixed with same quantity of chloroform and shaken similarly, and the chloroform layer obtained was decanted to a second beaker and labeled as “chloroform fraction” likewise. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine, emphasizing on health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action. Entry for AJUGA bracteosa Wall. Then, the remaining solvent free extract was kept alone in a desiccator till it was used for the study and the fractionation process in case the extract could contain hygroscopic element. values <0.05 were set as statistically significant. After overnight fasting, mice were divided into eleven groups (n = 6) at random: group 1 serving as the diabetic control group receiving 10 ml/kg DW, group 2 receiving aqueous fraction 100 mg/kg of AIRE, group 3 receiving aqueous fraction 200 mg/kg of AIRE, group 4 receiving aqueous fraction 400 mg/kg of AIRE, group 5 receiving hexane fraction 100 mg/kg of AIRE, group 6 receiving hexane fraction 200 mg/kg of AIRE, group 7 receiving hexane fraction 400 mg/kg of AIRE, group 8 receiving chloroform fraction 100 mg/kg of AIRE, group 9 receiving chloroform fraction 200 mg/kg of AIRE, group 10 receiving chloroform fraction 400 mg/kg of AIRE, and group 11 receiving GLC 5 mg/kg, and BGL of every mouse was determined at 0 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 6 hr, and 8 hr of AIRE fractions administration. Comparison within the group showed that the GLC-treated group increased bodyweight only slightly on the 14th day of treatment. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Thus, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the AIRE can be considered as more than 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the AIRE can be considered to be more than 2000 mg/kg. Significant difference in baseline BGL was not found throughout groups prior to the start of DW, AIRE, and GLC administration (Table 2). Taxonomists get tools to attach names to evolutionary histories in an explicit way and users of taxonomies may search databases for sequences and trees and retrieve explicit taxonomic information for comparative purposes. Likewise, a significant reduction in fasting BGL was not noticed in all AIRE received groups compared to the GLC-treated groups at all time points. Induction of diabetes mellitus is most commonly performed by using STZ due to its higher inductive rate and selectivity. Then, 2 g/kg of the extract was administered via mouth and was observed rigorously for physical or behavioral changes for one day with special consideration during the first 4 hours. No toxicity incidences have been reported related to Ajuga integrifolia in particular and the genus Ajuga in general so far [24, 33–35]. De, “Free radicals, antioxidants, diseases and phytomedicines: current status and future prospect,”, P. K. Prabhakar and M. Doble, “A target based therapeutic approach towards diabetes mellitus using medicinal plants,”, M. C. Sabu and R. Kuttan, “Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property,”, K. Cocquyt, P. Cos, P. Herdewijn, L. Maes, P. E. Van den Steen, and G. Laekeman, “Ajuga remota Benth. de largo y flores de color azulado ceniciento. Bodyweight of mice received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg aqueous fraction but not 100 mg/kg was considerably improved at 7th day and 14th day, with percentage increment of 4.95% and 6.32%, respectively, compared to the baseline. Box 272, Debre Tabor, Amhara, Ethiopia, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, https://www.diabetesatlas.org/upload/resources/2019/IDF_Atlas_9th_Edition_2019.pdf, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, N. Tiwari, A. K. Thakur, V. Kumar, A. Dey, and V. Kumar, “Therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus: an update,”, ADA, “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,”, M. E. Okur, I. D. Karantas, and P. I. Siafaka, “Diabetes Mellitus: a review on pathophysiology, current status of oral pathophysiology, current status of oral medications and future perspectives,”, N. M. Piero, N. J. Murugi, K. C. Mwiti, and M. P. Mwenda, “Pharmacological management of diabetes mellitus,”, R. J. Marles and N. R. Farnsworth, “Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents,”, A. Meresa, W. Gemechu, H. Basha et al., “Herbal medicines for the management of diabetic mellitus in Ethiopia and Eretria including their phytochemical constituents,”. Ajuga integrifolia is an herb belonging to Lamiaceae family under genus Ajuga and is locally known as “Tut Astel” and “Akorarach” in Amharic and “Harmegusa” in Oromifa in various parts of Ethiopia [9–11]. Long-term damage and failure of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels were evident in chronic hyperglycemia [2]. It is not scientifically validated for its antidiabetic activity previously. Thus, the present study was performed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the root extract and solvent fraction of Ajuga integrifolia in mice. BGL was determined prior to the starting of treatment (at 0 hr) as baseline, and then, following treatment at 2 hr, 4 hr, 6 hr, and 8 hr. This was validated after 72 hours of STZ injection with sustained hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a cluster of metabolic diseases occurred as a result of insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, or both that result in hyperglycemia [1]. Effect of single dose AIRE on hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Publicado en Lamiaceae, window.setTimeout(function() { window.location.href = "http://www.botanicayjardines.com/ajuga-integrifolia/redirigido-desde/sinonimia-ajuga-integrifolia-var-canescens/"; }, 10000); document.write('Usted será redirigido de forma automática a la ficha correcta en 10 segundos. Compared to the baseline bodyweight of the mice, there was a significant increase in bodyweight of the mice following repeated daily doses of aqueous fraction and crude extract at 14th day. & Mey. Hydromethanolic crude extract and its aqueous fraction of Ajuga integrifolia root showed a considerable blood glucose lowering activity at all doses. This study was performed in accordance with the recommendation for the care and use of laboratory animals [28]. However, AIRE 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg reduced fasting BGL approximately close to baseline and virtually similar to the GLC treated group at 120 minutes. The limitation of currently available drugs in terms of safety, efficacy, and cost warrants the development of new antidiabetic drugs from plant-derived compounds which are more efficacious, safer, and easily accessible [2, 5]. Si no quiere esperar haga click en el siguiente enlace para proceder de forma manual Ajuga integrifolia'); var time_left = 10; var cinterval; function time_dec(){ time_left--; document.getElementById("countdown").innerHTML = "" + time_left + ""; if(time_left == 0){ clearInterval(cinterval); } } cinterval = setInterval("time_dec()", 1000); Su navegador no tiene JavaScript activado y no hemos podido redirigirle de forma automática a la ficha con el nombre aceptado. Ajuga integrifolia has a wide native range, from northeast Africa, through Arabia, temperate and tropical Asia to New Guinea. The antihyperglycemic activity of this medicinal herb happens as a result of biologically active phytochemicals and secondary metabolites present in the plant. Ohrožené a chráněné druhy rostlin. Both the repeated daily doses of the crude extract and the repeated daily doses of the aqueous fraction of Ajuga integrifolia root extract revealed the similar effect in lowering the fasting blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice models. Zajímavosti ze světa rostlin. There was no significant change in bodyweight of the normal control compared to its baseline weights. Phytochemicals of this plant are used to treat variety of illnesses, ranging from mild tooth ache to malaria and inflammatory diseases. Diabetes mellitus, being a major global health threat nowadays [29], is seeking for studies to discover new therapeutic agents from various origins. Compared to groups treated by both repeated daily doses of crude extract and aqueous fraction of AIRE, the bodyweight of the diabetic control group was reduced significantly after two weeks of treatment. In general, a significant difference in BGL was not found when groups that received different doses of AIRE were compared with each other at all time points (Table 1). BGL and bodyweight of the mice were determined prior to starting treatment on the 1st day (baseline), 7th day, and 14th day [27, 28]. In repeated daily doses treated diabetic mice, mice were randomly divided into six groups (5 groups of diabetic mice and 1 another group of normal mice, each group comprised of 6 mice). Strategic about where you plant it, una sinonimia no es más otro! To rise to 578 million in 2019 sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible % of population! The diabetic control was treated with 10 ml/kg distilled water ( DW ) click en el siguiente para! 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