concept of health and disease wikipedia

Many diseases and disorders can be prevented through a variety of means. A healthy diet includes a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods that provide nutrients to your body. There are two main approaches to health science: the study and research of the body and health-related issues to understand how humans (and animals) function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases and other physical and mental impairments. (n.) O.E. The identification of a condition as a disease, rather than as simply a variation of human structure or function, can have significant social or economic implications. [24], When a disease is caused by a pathogen (e.g., when the disease malaria is caused by infection by Plasmodium parasites. biological, social, and psychological factors, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, "What is the Difference Between an 'Injury' and 'Disease' for Commonwealth Injury Claims? It is about family, work, school, and friends. A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. This definition includes mental and social dimensions and moves the An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and socia… [1][2] Diseases are often known to be medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. Of equal importance, perhaps, are attempts to counterbalance an excessive emphasis on scientific medicine wit… Epidemiology is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for diseases. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and other academic partners have collaborated on a new GBD 2010, published on 14 December 2012, which provides regional estimates of deaths and DALYs (using a new method for calculation of DALYs) for the years 1990, 2005 and 2010. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from time to time by disease. "Impact of population and latrines on fecal contamination of ponds in rural Bangladesh." Clinical practitioners focus mainly on the health of individuals, while public health practitioners consider the overall health of communities and populations. Nutrients help build and strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons and also regulate body processes (i.e. Physical is about the body.Mental is about how people think and feel.Social talks about how people live with other people. [5] Thus, health referred to the ability to maintain homeostasis and recover from insults. PHC initiatives allow for the full participation of community members in implementation and decision making. [23] Also, there are sexually transmitted diseases. Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being, not just the absence of disease or infirmity. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory for many diseases.It states that microorganisms known as pathogens or "germs" can lead to disease. For example, it is estimated that life expectancy has increased for Americans by thirty years since 1900,[51] and worldwide by six years since 1990. The maintenance of strong social relationships, volunteering, and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and also increased longevity. [54] Another study from Singapore reported that volunteering retirees had significantly better cognitive performance scores, fewer depressive symptoms, and better mental well-being and life satisfaction than non-volunteering retirees.[55]. [13], More specifically, key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following:[13][14][15], An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, environments, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. 3. The wellness concept at ASU is centered on connections and the idea that the mind, body, spirit and community are all interrelated and interdependent Webster’s 1913 Dictionary definition of Health The state of being hale, sound, or whole, in body, mind, or soul; especially, the state of being free from physical Neural Kinesiology (aka A.R.T) Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities". This scale was developed by Gunnar Borg, and it is used by medical professionals to assess a person’s health in a variety of ways. Asthma is another respiratory illness that many workers are vulnerable to. 3 soundness, esp. [29][30], The World Health Organization describes mental health as "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community". 4 a toast drunk in someone s honour. Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including: Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the evolution of health care knowledge and practices as well as personal strategies and organized interventions for staying healthy. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past. English 6 … Workplace wellness programs are increasingly being adopted by companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, as are school health services in order to improve the health and well-being of children. Biomedical: all aspects of health, physical and mental, developed within the human body as influenced by genetic make-up. [2] Then in 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity". Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Even if we put these questions about the concept of health to the side, however, there are other questions that concern the nature of public health. [57][58] Other occupational diseases of concern include carpal tunnel syndrome and lead poisoning. [1], The meaning of health has evolved over time. Concept of health and illness. The environment is often cited as an important factor influencing the health status of individuals. Such nutrients give you energy and keep your body running. A doctor who prescribescontraceptives or performs an abortion, for example, is not treating adisease. Applied health sciences endeavor to better understand and improve human health through applications in areas such as health education, biomedical engineering, biotechnology and public health. The modem concept of health thus, antici­pates and recognizes potentially harmful situations and applies engineering control measures to prevent disease or illness or infirmity. One Health is a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach — working at the local, regional, national, and global levels — with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment. Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease. Health is "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease" according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. This is periodically updated. [53], Personal health also depends partially on the social structure of a person's life. As the number of service sector jobs has risen in developed countries, more and more jobs have become sedentary, presenting a different array of health problems than those associated with manufacturing and the primary sector. Slavery is a common metaphor for addictions: The alcoholic is enslaved by drink, and the smoker is captive to nicotine. Preventive healthcare is a way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in the first place. [28], Bodily injuries are also a common health issue worldwide. [27] One difficulty is the issue raised by the debate over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions between genetics and environment may be of particular importance. n. 1. If you're concerned about developing heart disease, talk to your doctor about steps you can take to reduce your heart disease risk. Find prevention topics, dietary and physical activity guidelines, and other health resources. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause and effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged.[25]. Tools. Multiple factors are to be taken in to consideration to define what is health and what is disease. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Program has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health. "[48] It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. Making healthy food choices is important because it can lower your risk of heart disease, developing some types of cancer, and it will contribute to maintaining a healthy weight. Epub 2007 Jul 10. *hailitho, from PIE *kailo whole, uninjured, of good omen (Cf. [25] It has been demonstrated that increased time spent in natural environments is associated with improved self-reported health,[26] suggesting that the positive health benefits of natural space in urban neighborhoods should be taken into account in public policy and land use. [10], In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health. The patient or the healthcare provider is a warrior, rather than a passive victim or bystander. These small organisms, too small to see without magnification, invade humans, other animals, and other living hosts. Because the threat is urgent, perhaps a matter of life and death, unthinkably radical, even oppressive, measures are society's and the patient's moral duty as they courageously mobilize to struggle against destruction. Health is defined by the World Health Organizationas “a state of complete physical, mental, or social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Health is an ideal state that all of us strive for and may, perhaps, achieve. 17 (August 2011): 3174–82. People who are sick are also exempted from social duties. Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging evidence, Practice: A report of the World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13): What You Need to Know - English PDF The agents of communicable diseases are invaders; non-communicable diseases constitute internal insurrection or civil war. In the 20th century, after its cause was better understood, the same disease became the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other social problems. Many governments view occupational health as a social challenge and have formed public organizations to ensure the health and safety of workers. Good health helps people live a full life. Both health care practitioners and health planners are beginning to recognize the importance of differences between lay and professional concepts of health and illness. by hand-to-mouth contact with infectious material on surfaces, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food (often via fecal contamination), etc. In some cases, microorganisms that are not readily spread from person to person play a role, while other diseases can be prevented or ameliorated with appropriate nutrition or other lifestyle changes. Social determinants of health have been recognized by several health organizations such as the Public Health Agency of Canada and the World Health Organization to greatly influence collective and personal well-being. In addition, the concept of "culture" requires careful theoretical grounding in health studies. 2 a person s mental or physical condition (has poor health). In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 932 million years of potential life were lost to premature death.[31]. the general health of operative classes of Manchester, with special reference to occupational disease of the cotton industry. Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. The controversial recognition of diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations, and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. health. In technical discussions concerning health care issues we would be better off talking in terms of state descriptions and normative claims rather than in terms of health and disease. World Health Organization. English - Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Their growth and reproduction within their hosts can cause disease. Inactivity can also contribute to health issues and also a lack of sleep, excessive alcohol consumption, and neglect of oral hygiene (Moffett2013).There are also genetic disorders that are inherited by the person and can vary in how much they affect the person and when they surface (Moffett, 2013). It strengthens muscles and improves the cardiovascular system. [56] Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. French - La santé est un état de complet bien-être physique, mental et social, et ne consiste pas seulement en une absence de maladie ou d'infirmité. Primary Health Care, or PHC refers to "essential health care" that is based on scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology.This makes universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community. Health definition is - the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; especially : freedom from physical disease or pain. * This article will appear as the foreword in the book, Concepts of Health and Disease in Medicine: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Boston, Addison-Wesley, 1980 (Arthur Caplan, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and James McCartney, editors). Positive health consists of six dimensions: bodily functions, mental functions & perceptions, spiritual dimension, quality of life, social & … [35] In return for these benefits, the sick person is obligated to seek treatment and work to become well once more. The meaning of health has evolved over time. The metaphors move disease from an objective thing that exists to an affective experience. [16]– such as the 1974 Lalonde report from Canada;[15] the Alameda County Study in California;[17] and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries. Some morbidity databases are compiled with data supplied by states and territories health authorities, at national levels[28][29] or larger scale (such as European Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB))[30] which may contain hospital discharge data by detailed diagnosis, age and sex. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.” Also there is a term known as Mental Health and it describes either a level of cognitive or emotional well-being or an absence of a mental disorder. [40] Authors in the 19th century commonly used tuberculosis as a symbol and a metaphor for transcendence. Wrong…! The War on Cancer is an example of this metaphorical use of language. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 1.5 billion disability-adjusted life years were lost to disease and injury. Human disease classification in the postgenomic era: a complex systems approach to human pathobiology. The concepts are ambiguous, operating both as explanatory and evaluatory notions. [37][38] Some are explicitly immigration-themed: the patient has been exiled from the home territory of health to the land of the ill, changing identity and relationships in the process. Unlike YPLL, these measurements show the burden imposed on people who are very sick, but who live a normal lifespan. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. He promoted the concept that public health depended on a clean environment. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also mentally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person's perspective on life. Illnesses are generally related to social, economic, political, and environmental circumstances. According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. Section 1: the theoretical perspectives and methods of enquiry of. 1 health and illness (chapter 1 – understanding health and. Many diseases that cannot be completely cured are still treatable. Tea contains caffeine. UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF HEALTH Lennart Nordenfelt, Dept of Health and Society, Linköping University, lenno@ihs.liu.se ABSTRACT: Contemporary philosophy of health has been quite focused on the problem of determining the nature of the concepts of health, illness and disease from a … This brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". When person is well, and when sick. Concepts of health and disease also connect themselves with environmental issues and theories of well-being.It is very complex to define what is health and disease. Public health departments began expanding their programs towards health promotional activities. [39] This language is more common among British healthcare professionals than the language of physical aggression. A national health education program aimed at preventing heart disease in women and other vulnerable populations. The most popular metaphors draw on military concepts: Disease is an enemy that must be feared, fought, battled, and routed. What is being suggested here for ‘health’ and ‘disease’ is similar to the situation with ‘species’. For example, genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with stress, either mental, emotional or physical. The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.The objective of this topic is to see how social life affects morbidity and mortality rate, and vice versa. Mol Syst Biol. Though the majority of these health issues are preventable, a major contributor to global ill health is the fact that approximately 1 billion people lack access to health care systems. health: translation (helth) A state of optimal physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. The years of potential life lost (YPLL) is a simple estimate of the number of years that a person's life was shortened due to a disease. [33] Epilepsy is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the Hmong people.[34]. [12], Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of life. benefit that outweighs the harm of any interventions taken – removing the precancerous tissue prevents cancer, and thus prevents a potential death from cancer. [1][failed verification] A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. O.E. It is about family, work, school, and friends. Health- “Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Micronutrients – vitamins and minerals – are consumed in relatively smaller quantities, but are essential to body processes. Among the most common occupational diseases are various forms of pneumoconiosis, including silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Examples of these include the British Health and Safety Executive and in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which conducts research on occupational health and safety, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health. When most of a population is immune to an infectious disease, this provides indirect protection—or herd immunity (also called herd protection)—to those who are not immune to the disease. These include sanitation, proper nutrition, adequate exercise, vaccinations and other self-care and public health measures. Most religions grant exceptions from religious duties to people who are sick. Read more. Definition of health • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a “state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO, 1947). Epidemiology is the study of the factors that cause or encourage diseases. Well-being concepts | hrqol | cdc. [32], Mental illness is described as 'the spectrum of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral conditions that interfere with social and emotional well-being and the lives and productivity of people. Improving relevant skills, such as problem solving and time management skills, reduces uncertainty and builds confidence, which also reduces the reaction to stress-causing situations where those skills are applicable. (Ananth 2008; Boorse 1975; Coggon 2012; Hoffman 2010; Holland 2007; see the entry on concepts of health and disease). According to the National Institutes of Health, there are four types of exercise: endurance, strength, flexibility, and balance. The European HMDB data was submitted by European countries to the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. 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