Among these five dimensions, altruistic calling is most aligned with ethics. Researcher Polleys distinguished servant leadership from three predominant leadership paradigms: The Trait, Behavioral, and Contingency approaches to leadership. If you want to learn even more about the future of remote work and how to lead your team from wherever you are, check out my new book Leading From Anywhere at the links below. Servant leadership is often associated with Christian leadership and Christian leaders; however, the model is not limited to the Christian realm. The second premise of servant leadership is "I am the leader because I serve". In short, servant leadership principles emphasize facilitation and helping employees grow and harness their maximum potential, empowering both individual team members and the company to be successful.  As stated by its founder, Robert K. Greenleaf, a Servant Leader should be focused on, "Do those served grow as persons?  Servant leaders also make a safe emotional work environment for employees by making acceptance a major goal. Servant leaders are a revolutionary bunch–they take the traditional power leadership model and turn it completely upside down.  Studies have also shown that leadership as a whole has an effect on employee's psychological health. Workspirited gives you an explanation of the servant leadership theory with some examples. However, Akuchie did not, in any way, clarify servant leadership as distinct from other forms of leadership or articulate a framework for understanding servant leadership. Servant Leadership is an interesting theory that focuses on the leaders behaviors (Northouses, 2013). In that same essay, Greenleaf quotes Hillary Clinton's 1969 commencement address.  Servant Leadership lessens the feeling of being "drained of inner resources", so employees experience an increase in Work-to-Family positive spillover (WFPS).  Researcher Patterson also developed a more spiritual conceptualization of servant leadership around leader values including: agapé love, humility, altruism, creating 21 visions for followers, being trusting, serving, and empowering their followers. However, Sendjaya and Sarros research work did not propose a testable framework nor did this work distinguish between this and other leadership styles.  When put into practice, Servant Leadership has a positive effect on a sales person's turnover intentions because turnover is mainly associated with "the quality of the salesperson–supervisor relationship.  Research has shown that although many organizations are used to the belief that the "top-down" way, or the leader prioritizing themselves and the organizations and then the employees, is the best way to engage employees in their work. According to Northouse (2016), servant leadership is unique in its altruistic nature. Akuchie examined a single Bible passage related to servant leadership, just like the one mentioned in the opening of the essay. Research shows that management style is a main factor in sales person turnover. © 2020 - David Burkus | Site by Out:think | Drop me a line: email@example.com, [otmg_register redirect="https://davidburkus.com/2010/04/servant-leadership-theory/" button_text="Sign Me Up!"]. Numerous different researchers and leadership experts have created scales and dimensions to differentiate between the levels of Servant Leadership practices as well as evaluate Servant Leadership behaviors.  The employees also stay at the organization so that they can see and learn more from their employer. Servant leadership suggests that a leader not rely on their authority to get things done. Servant leadership theory development talks about the concept and the model of this leadership style, however servant leadership measurement tried to … They do not choose between opposing values.  Acceptance in this case is the leader being okay with having different personalities, personal views, and values as their employees, and understanding that their employees aren't "perfect". Instead… In any case, Servant leadership theory has a place within the spectrum of leadership theory, as it represents the strongest emphasis on followers of any theory. In servant leadership literature, the use of Social Learning Theory argues that servant leaders are influencing their followers, as their followers observe and emulate the leader’s positive behaviors. Thoughts on servant leadership and further definitions. A servant leadership puts the follower first in order to assist them in their career growth. Greenleaf gave this idea an extensive amount of thought before bringing it to life. An organizational justice perspective", "Regulatory focus as a mediator of the influence of initiating structure and servant leadership on employee behavior", "Development of the School Principals' Servant Leadership Behaviors Scale and Evaluation of Servant Leadership Behaviors According to Teachers' Views", "Looking Back to Look Forward: Lessons for Leadership Development", Servant Leadership in the Workplace: A Brief Introduction (Atlanta: Cairnway, 2017), chs. The idea of servant leadership was coined more thoroughly and brought to a modern business world by Robert K. Greenleaf. Robert K. Greenleaf first coined the phrase "servant leadership" in his 1970 essay, "The Servant as a Leader." In turn, this nurturing from their employer leads to them returning this same nurturing towards their co-workers and making the work place a suitable environment for the growth of the employees, as well as the production of good quality work to grow the organization. In servant leadership literature, the use of Social Learning Theory argues that servant leaders are influencing their followers, as their followers observe and emulate the leader’s positive behaviors. Only through the act of serving does the leader lead other people to be what they are capable of. They also argued that the servant leader must be a teacher to develop their followers, and that values and core personal beliefs were the antecedents to servant leadership. Therefore, others may perceive leadership dedication to achievement or accomplishment as a threat. From a managerial perspective, the benefits of servant leadership are many. These traits indicate one is a servant leader because, overall, they are causing the ones they serve to become healthier and wiser, guiding others toward self-improvement. Journal of Pan African Studies, 5(2), 67–83. Namely, as there are still lingering questions the conceptual and empirical overlap between servant leadership and transformational, ethical and authentic leadership and there are criticisms about how much the existing research in this field can tell us as it is restricted by its own limitations in research design. ", In Journey to the East, the main character, named Leo, is a servant just like all the others. SHARE: The magnum opus of Robert Greenleaf, Servant Leadership is a recent theory of leadership that argues that the most effective leaders are servants of their people. According to Ginny Boyum, Greenleaf proposed that servant leaders should serve first, make the needs of others their main priority, and find success and "power" in the growth of others; summarily, "A servant can only become a leader if a leader remains a servant". (1999). Greenleaf declares that servant leadership begins with the natural feeling of wanting to serve first. As in all theories of exemplary leadership, servant leaders grow the leadership capacity of followers – leaving them better off and better able to lead in the future. In fact, we have witnessed an unparalleled explosion of interest and practice of servant-leadership … Post was not sent - check your email addresses! In addition to some early definitions and distinct characteristics of Servant Leaders, researchers and leadership experts have used research to add on to these. As defined before, a servant leader's goal is to build upon the skills of their employees and make them better people. In other words, this begins with a rooted ambition to be leader or personal ambitions of a leader. From the "I serve" mentality come two premises: The first premise signifies the act of altruism. Factor analyses reduced this scale to five unique dimensions: altruistic calling (four items), emotional healing (four items), wisdom (five items), persuasive mapping (five items), and organizational stewardship (five items).  The authors state: The review has demonstrated that the servant leadership field has made progress in the last 20 years, however, the field of servant leadership still has its critics. That goes against the thinking that there are more people to serve the leader when they reach an … However, it's an approach that people have used for centuries. Servant leadership stresses the importance of the role a leader plays as the steward of the resources of the group, and teaches leaders to serve others while still achieving the goals set forth by the business. In contrast, Social Exchange Theory is used to argue that a servant leader's followers are exhibiting positive behaviors due to the reciprocal relationship they develo… Greenleaf maintained, "The servant leader is servant first." A servant-leader focuses primarily on the growth and well-being of people and the communities to which they belong. Servant leadership is one of the more popular theories of leadership, especially among Christian leaders who vigorously cite Jesus as the penultimate example of servant leadership. The data collection method for this study consisted of narrative analysis of the 10 interviews utilizing Robert Greenleaf’s servant leadership theory, which highlights the leader’s desire to serve others first and foremost.  Black scholars also note that although Greenleaf attributes his ideas to Herman Hesse, Martin Luther King Jr. preached similar approaches and was a contemporary of Greenleaf in the United States, but King is never mentioned in any of Greenleaf's original works. What Is Servant Leadership Theory? The servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Despite several conceptual papers on the topic of servant leadership, there is no consensus on empirical research for the servant-leadership construct until a state-of-the-art review published in 2020 by Nathan Eva, Mulyadi Robin, Sen Sendjaya, Dirk van Dierendonck, and Robert C Liden  in the Leadership Quarterly. A servant leader prioritizes the team’s growth and well-being, letting their own needs and ambition take a backseat. , Some argue that servant leadership is still going through the process of being accepted as a leadership theory because of Greenleaf's belief that Servant Leadership is a way of life rather than a systematized technique with a specific outline. , Feminist scholars have noted that servant leadership is based on patriarchal approaches to leadership, noting that leadership discourse in general is a attributed with masculinity. 1 Iss.  Overall, employees feeling a sense of support, as well as having a leader who are doing everything in their power to do things that are beneficial for the employees contributes to heightened job performance from the employees. Common … Here are 10 characteristics and traits that distinguishes a servant leader from the more traditional ones. They argued that this leadership principle was so important to Christianity that it was captured by all four Gospel writers (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John). These ten characteristics are listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of others, and building community. Thursday, April 1st, 2010 | Comments off | “True leadership must be for the benefit of the followers, not to enrich the leader.” This work was exploratory in nature. Greenleaf believed the betterment of others to be the true intention of a servant leader: "I serve" in opposition of the traditional "I lead" mentality. Greenleaf believed leaders have a social responsibility to care for the disenfranchised and to serve first; he proposes shifting power to those who are being led. Valid and reliable measurement instruments grounded in theory are essential to move the field of servant leadership forward. Further, anecdotal evidence shows that many organizations have implemented Servant Leadership as their main way of managing their organization, and for good reasons too. There are also researchers such as Russell and Stone who reviewed the literature and proposed nine 'functional' attributes of servant leadership (vision, honesty, integrity, trust, service, modeling, pioneering, appreciation of others, and empowerment) and eleven 'accompanying' attributes (communication, credibility, competence, stewardship, visibility, influence, persuasion, listening, encouragement, teaching, and delegation). 10 key … Bradley, Y. " When leaders shift their mindset and serve first, they benefit as well as their employees in that their employees acquire personal growth, while the organization grows as well due to the employees growing commitment and engagement. The servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible. However, this conceptualization made by these researchers did not differ from leadership theories such as transformational leadership. By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. This consisted of behavioral (vision, service) and relational (influence, credibility, trust) components. interesting to consider servant leadership in comparison with other, more established, leadership models.  Larry Spears, CEO of the Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, stated in an interview: "Greenleaf credited his reading of Hesse's 1932 book, Journey to the East, as the personal source of inspiration in his coining the term, 'servant-leader' in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. , Before the modern fad for the concept of "leadership" emerged, the autocratic enlightened absolutist King Frederick II ("the Great") of Prussia (r. 1740–1786) famously portrayed himself as "the first servant of the state"..  Servant Leaders are also seen as good role models in the eyes of their employees. He views them as being critical to the development of servant-leaders. In that essay, Greenleaf emphasized that the servant leader is first and foremost a servant. There are a million of these… Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? Unlike many approaches to leadership, which offer suggestions on how top-level leaders can influence and motivate those further down the hierarchy, servant leadership puts its emphasis on collaboration, trust, empathy, and ethics.  Organizations that don't practice servant leadership may discourage employees expressing their feelings in the work place, but servant leaders encourage this expression to prevent any conflict within the workplace. Servant leadership is handled throughout the literature by many different dimensions. 5, 6, 7, "Challenging and Critiquing Notions of Servant Leadership: Lessons from My Mother", "The Positive Relationship between Servant Leadership and Employees' Psychological Health: A Multi-Method Approach", International Journal of Servant-Leadership, Cairnway Center for Servant Leadership Excellence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Servant_leadership&oldid=994308748, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 01:47. Servant leaders get results for their organization through whole-hearted attention to their followers and followers’ needs. Greenleaf first presented the theory in a 1970 essay, “The Servant as Leader.” However, numerous others theorists have contributed to our understanding of servant leadership. The "I serve" mentality is evident in politicians who define their role through public service. Hence Greenleaf's idea of what a servant leader should be. Servant leadership is a leadership philosophy in which an individual interacts with others—either in a management or fellow employee capacity—with the aim of … A servant leader actively contributes in the personal development and performance of their team.  Moreover, employees feeling that their needs are made a priority in the work place, as well as the feeling of being satisfied with their interactions at work on a daily basis, has an impact on their family's experience with them as they shift from the work role to the family role. 1, 2010, 25-30. Altruism is defined as the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others.  This leads to turnover intention reduction in that the employees "... take pride in what they do and enjoy the company of people they work with". Servant leadership: A critique of Robert Greenleaf’s concept of leadership. Servant leadership practices appear to have an effect on the life of the employee, outside of the organizations that they are affiliated with. We value your privacy and will never share your email with anyone else. What Is Servant Leadership? Servant leadership predominately draws on two social theories to explain how it influences follower behavior: Social Learning and Social Exchange Theory. When the servants realize that things aren't the same without Leo, they came to the realization that Leo was far more than a servant — he was actually their leader. This idea completely transformed management theory in the 1970s whereby roles that rely on authority and control are referred to as management and roles that rely on influencing are referred to as leadership. In his 1970 essay “The Servant as a Leader,” he described servant leadership like this: “The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first.” Servant leadership flips the typical leadership script by putting people ahead of power. Criticism: It Demotivates. , Servant leadership predominately draws on two social theories to explain how it influences follower behavior: Social Learning and Social Exchange Theory. No confirmatory analysis was performed, no criterion was posited to establish validity, and convergent/divergent validity was not established.. James Sipe and Don Frick, in their book The Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership, state that servant-leaders are individuals of character, those who put people first, are skilled communicators, are compassionate collaborators, use foresight, are systems thinkers, and exercise moral authority. The magnum opus of Robert Greenleaf, Servant Leadership is a recent theory of leadership that argues that the most effective leaders are servants of their people.  In simpler terms, servant leaders should seek to be servants first, to care for the needs of all others around them, in order to ensure growth of future leaders. The researchers presented servant leadership as a hierarchical model in a cyclical process. While organizations thrive based on the work produced by the employees, the commitment of the employees to the organization is a major contributor to how well an organization functions. However, they serve to communicate the power and promise this concept offers. One major extension was Larry Spear's 10 characteristics of the Servant Leader. Leadership experts such as Bolman, Deal, Covey, Fullan, Sergiovanni, and Heifitz also reference these characteristics as essential components of effective leadership. 5.  Some employees may have personalities and/or characteristics that may lead to them doing or saying things to their leader that is unacceptable. Servant leadership is a leadership philosophy in which the main goal of the leader is to serve. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place. As a servant leader, you're a "servant first" – you focus on the needs of others, especially team members, before you consider your own. , Servant leadership entered the arena of research in 1998 with the publication of the first peer-reviewed servant leadership scale, and since then, over 270 peer reviewed articles have been published across 122 academic journals. These are by no means exhaustive. The act of leadership is in the context of serving others and to serve others. The servant leader will work hard to assess the current challenges, promote a vision of the future, engage the team, other managers and superiors. Numerous research studies have focused on such relationships between theories. The assumption is that if leaders focus on the needs and desires of followers, followers will reciprocate through increased teamwork, deeper engagement, and better performance. 1.  Although Servant Leadership was proposed many years ago, it is still considered a "newer" theory among many other theories because of the switch in focus from the traditional leadership theories.. The year 2008 was a significant year in servant leadership research with the publication of two seminal papers by Sen Sendjaya, James C Sarros, and Joseph C Santora as well as Liden, Wayne, Zhao, and Henderson, and the first publications using Ehrhart's (2004) measure. Since this leadership style came about, a number of different organizations have adopted this style as their way of leadership. Servant leadership is a method of development for leaders. Servant leadership is based on a simple concept: that as an employee, a worker is present to serve the organization. His second major essay, "The Institution as Servant," unequivocally reinforced that point. This is different from traditional leadership where the leader's main focus is the thriving of their company or organizations. The leader should be a servant first, leading from a desire to better serve others and not to attain more power. It is one of many ways to make an effective leader. As one moves up higher into leadership, then there are more people to serve. ", The authors proposed three key elements that captures the essence of servant leadership and set it apart from other leadership styles - namely the motive (the underlying personal motivation for taking up a leadership responsibility, requiring a strong sense of self, character, and psychological maturity), the mode (that they lead by prioritizing subordinates' needs above the organization's bottom line), and the mindset (that servant leaders are stewards who reorient their followers' focus towards others). Our final theory to explore is servant leadership, which originated in the writings of Robert Greenleaf. A Servant Leader shares power, puts the needs of the employees first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible. Spears (as cited by Northouse, 2016) identified ten characteristics of a servant leader. Many researchers and theorists argue that servant leaders can become so focused on the needs of their followers that the needs of the organization suffer as a result. However, the modern movement was born in a 1970 essay by Robert K. Greenleaf. Servant leadership is a classic concept, but the term was coined in 1970, when Robert K. Greenleaf published his essay, "The Servant as Leader." His book The Servant as Leader was published in 1970 and it still forms the basis of the theory to this day.  In addition, Servant Leadership being the foundation of organizations is said to lead to employees having positive experiences and satisfaction in the work place, which in turn leads to " a transfer of positive experiences from the work role to the family role".  Servant Leadership being practiced is said to decrease emotional exhaustion, which is the leading cause of employee burnout. , Various critiques of servant leadership have been made.  By doing this, Servant Leaders create a safe space where employees are able to be themselves and express how they are feeling, knowing that they can trust their leader to be non judgmental. Servant-leadership is also an expanding river, and one which carries with it a deep current of meaning and passion.  Thus, studies have shown that Servant Leadership has a positive effect on employee's psychological health in that the less strain on the employee and the more they assimilate at the organization, the better their psychological health.  Likewise, Servant Leadership has a direct effect on employer brand perception, which in turn reduces employee job turnover. According to previous research, servant leadership seems to have an effect on the emotional health of the employees because the servant leaders' reliance on "one-on-one communication to understand the abilities, needs, desires, goals, and potential of those individuals" aids in the employees' ability to express themselves in the work place. Furthermore, People often refer to servant leadership theory as weak because of the involvement of staff in problem-solving.  Having their employer cater to their needs, in conjunction with supportive co-workers and staff, aids in lowering stress levels, which produces the desire to go home and cater to their family’s needs. All the servants work well together, until one day when Leo disappears. Behaving Ethically.  Similarly, Black scholars have pointed out how notions of servants as being subjugated and mistreated is largely absent from servant leadership discourse. Robert K. Greenleaf first popularized the phrase "servant leadership" in "The Servant as Leader", an essay published in 1970. Sign up once and get access for life. Our view is that it would be premature to hit the restart button on the field. For servant leadership research and meta-analyses, we recommend that scholars more heavily psychometrically scrutinize servant leadership by including differing leadership theories, organizational culture, HR practices (e.g. A servant leader has the ability to recognize and understand feelings and emotions that are experienced by their team. Servant leaders get results for their organization through whole-hearted attention to their followers and followers’ needs. The servant-leader concept continues to grow in its influence and impact. Similarly, researcher Akuchie explored the religious and spiritual articulations of the servant leadership construct. (2012). Servant leadership is actually an ancient practice. Similar to other leadership experts, Spears believed that Servant Leaders should have these 10 traits: empathy, listening, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community. The servant leadership concept has been around for a long time. We hope by heeding the advice offered in this review to resolve these problems, the servant leadership research can move forward and continue to offer significant insights to the leadership field over the next 20 years. , Servant leadership also contributes to employees' goal achievement and success. In this essay, Greenleaf explains how and why he came up with the idea of servant leadership, as well as defining a servant leader.  Leo was seen as a servant, but when the other servants realized that things fell apart without him, he became far more than just a servant to them. Servant leaders who picked up the broken glass. The following 12 characteristics of Servant-Leadership have been identified by Larry Spears, CEO of the Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership. The servant leadership theory puts an emphasis on facilitating the growth of people around you and serving the needs of others. However, as demonstrated by Eva, Robin, Sendjaya, van Dierendonck, and Liden's review, research has established servant leadership as a valid construct that is worthwhile researching and implementing. Theory are essential to move the field of servant leaders lead others to go beyond the call duty... Leadership paradigms: the Trait, behavioral, and Winston noted the lack of empirical evidence for servant leadership appear... From the `` I serve '' it would be premature to hit the restart button on the field servant... [ 25 ] this outcome is expected because of the problems have arisen poor... The more traditional ones 1970 servant leadership theory it still forms the basis of the people individuals — also! 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