structure of bakelite

To get to the History of Bakelite we must travel back in time to the year 1907 when a Belgian-born chemist, Leo Bakeland came up with a process of combining Phenol with formaldehyde resin. Bakelite is the first plastic product to be put into industrial production. Bakelite is a thermosetting plastic. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. Bakelite could be readily molded, and therefore, it could be used in producing different products. In mounting of samples of metal in metallography, Bakelite are used. [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. The monomers that are required in the formation of Bakelite are formaldehyde and phenol. Plastic and Bakelite are both organic polymers, having a very large molecular weight though there exists a difference between the two based on their properties and usage. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Muhammad Usman (2008-chem-02-B) Properties of required chemicals: 1. The dielectric constant of Bakelite lies in the range of 4.4{\rm{4}}{\rm{.4}}4.4 to 5.4{\rm{5}}{\rm{.4}}5.4. This content has been hidden. The commercial name of phenol formaldehyde resin is Bakelite. Polymers. Structured data. The chemical process and the final atomic structure of Bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. [4], Image: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, Figure 2 – A three-dimensional representation of the cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde. In the initial process of synthesizing, Bakelite involves in the phenol and formaldehyde heating in the presence of catalysts such as hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and zinc chloride. The resin in stage A can also be cured by itself for a long time. To enhance the strength and properties of Bakelite, fillers are employed so that Bakelite could be used for several applications. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. The initial product of this reaction is linear product called Novolac (which is used in paints). Because of its high resistance towards heat and electricity, it is used to manufacture in several electronic instruments, parts of automobile, and switches. Polymers has high molecular mass. Some of the reinforcing fillers like wood flour, pulp of cotton, mica, gypsum, asbestos are added to resins of molding such as Bakelite. Ortho and parahydroxyl benzyl alcohol formation by the mixture of reactants of formaldehyde and phenol. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. Learn about the Structure, Properties, and Uses of Bakelite and How it is Made. Structure of Bakelite Report ; Posted by Utpal Nath 1 year ago. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. They have excellent electrical insulating character. Glacial Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. It is an example of thermosetting resin of phenol and formaldehyde. The steps of reaction involved in the formation of Bakelite are. Mark describes the structure of Bakelite and how the links between molecules mean that it will not melt at higher temperatures (like celluloid did before it). A synthetic resin that is made from synthetic substances is Bakelite. [online] Available at: Anon, (2016). Bakelite set to rigid, hard, scratch resistant, in fusible, water resistance, insoluble solids, which are resistance to non-oxidising acids and many organic solvents. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Curing is process which leads in the toughening of polymers and hardening of polymers by producing chains of cross-linked polymers. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Explore Alibaba.com for structure of bakelite that meet all quality expectations. Bakelite is another name for phenolic resin, an early form of plastic. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. Besides fillers, the curing process could be accelerated by catalyst. Once hard, it is crushed into a powder, which is then mixed with various fillers. Yum. The reaction has to be carried out in pressure else the formed product will be brittle and the density of the material would be less. [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. Bakelite has chemical formula of (C6H6O−CH2OH)n{\left( {{{\rm{C}}_{\rm{6}}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{6}}}{\rm{O - C}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{OH}}} \right)_{\rm{n}}}(C6​H6​O−CH2​OH)n​. [online] Available at. Several patterns were made in 1942, but steel was used instead in 1943 and recycled shell casings in 1944 and 1945. Il peut être peint dans des couleurs différentes. ( Log Out / 
It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. The most readily found colors are yellow, ranging from butter yellow to dark butterscotch, followed by various shades of green. Bakelite. When heated Bakelite is malleable, it could be made into liquid. The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. When the phenol and formaldehyde are mixed together, the reaction of the the chemicals under the correct pressure and temperature creates this amazing, hard plastic. Experiment # 1: Preparation of Bakelite. Bakelite in solid colors is the most recognizable type even without employing testing measures. New Page 1. Due to the adverse properties of Bakelite, it could be used for several applications: As Bakelite is a good insulator, Bakelite is utilized in non-conducting parts of radios and several electronic devices such as switches, sockets, wire insulation, brake pads, etc. Shellac is made from the excretion of Kerria Lacca insects (lac bugs). Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. Inventors and inventions. Write the names of the monomers of the following polymers: (a) Bakelite (b) Nylon - 6,6 Bakelite’s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and chemical resistance. Build flawless & robust structure of bakelite strong as an ox with aid of leading steel giants. CBSE > Class 12 > Chemistry 2 answers; Jd Chouhan 1 year ago (C6H6 o CH2o)X 0 Thank You. What to learn next based on college curriculum. New York: Marshall Cavendish. For protective uses and as coating in industry, Bakelite could be used.

Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Change ), NT Conradie - 19673418 [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. So, it is known as thermosetting plastic. Bakelite is the first synthetic plastic and is known as a “material of thousand uses” due to its versatile applications. [online] Available at: Wikipedia. Once content is flagged, it is hidden from users and is reviewed by myCBSEguide team against our … Value of Old Plastic Jewelry . It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. S Meyer - 16719794 This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. Posted on September 30, 2020 by . Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. If it gives off a formaldehyde smell, it is Bakelite. It contains phenol, formaldehyde and a wood flour filler. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. In the presence of cross-linking agent, Novolac goes through cross-linking process form Bakelite. The systematic name of bakelite is polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride. The condensation reaction of formation of Bakelite is extremely exothermic (or) a water molecule is lost for the cooling process. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. File:3-D Structure of Bakelite.png. In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. (2016). Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite deforms permanently and retains its shape after being heated and moulded. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol… Bakelite is an early plastic, created in 1907. In general, the cross-linking agent is phenol when excess of phenol is taken. E-mail: [email protected] ... After further reaction, an insoluble and infusible body structure C-stage resin, also known as insoluble phenolic resin, is obtained. [2] The new mixture is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure. Bakelite could be made into several colors, because of its ability to make into several colors. The cost of molding gets reduced when inert filler is added. And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to form Bakelite. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. One or more users have flagged this content as inappropriate. bakelite structure. Bakelite can also be tested using the “hot water” method. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Structure of BakeliteDue to its hardness and durability, it was considered as a material for making pennies in the United States during World War II, due to copper being needed for shell casings. ( Log Out /  3-D_Structure_of_Bakelite.png ‎ (563 × 548 pixels, file size: 16 KB, MIME type: image/png) File information. English. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. (2016). They are also called macromolecules. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. It could also be used as binding agents and adhesives. The condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of acid or base as catalyst. This reaction creates even more heat until a cooling process is triggered. Formed by the reaction under heat and pressure of phenol and formaldehyde, generally with a wood flour filler, it was the first plastic made from synthetic components. When fillers are added, the enhanced properties are, Higher electrical resistance, chemical resistance, and thermal resistance. Today, objects made from Bakelite are considered highly collectible, although in its glory days of the 1930s and 1940s, it was seen as an inexpensive alternative to high-end jewelry materials such as jade and pearl. [1], Image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. In general, the condensation polymer (or) phenolic resin is Bakelite. (2008). An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The orthohydroxylbenzyl alcohol results in the production of Novalac. Its chemical name is phenolic. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. Le résultat final est formé sur la surface d'un film spécial constitué d'éléments organiques ou inorganiques. In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. Structure Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. The dangerous nature of Bakelite is from different sources: manufacturing, collecting and disposing. Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. Bakelite is used in making of jewelry. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Let us check out the various properties and uses of Bakelite. (2016). ( Log Out /  It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Release date: 22 November 2012 A condensation polymerization reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the formation of Bakelite. The condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the product Bakelite. The preparation of Bakelite from condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde is written as. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. The trademark rights for this plastic are owned by a German company called Bakelite AG, in many countries. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 Since Bakelite is a manufactured, synthetic plastic containing incredible amounts of formaldehyde, asbestos and other extremely toxic polymers, those who produced these desirable products, put themselves at risk. Red is one of the most popular colors of Bakelite jewelry with collectors. These desired properties include: better mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and greater heat-, water-, chemical-, and shock-resistance. Bakelite is a Polymer made up of the Monomers Phenol and Formaldehyde. ( Log Out /  Bakelite First Synthetic Plastic – National Historic Chemical Landmark – American Chemical Society. The presence of hydroxyl group attached to aromatic benzene ring is phenol and CH2{\rm{C}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}CH2​ linked to the phenols indicates the presence of formaldehyde. Run the piece under hot tap water. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or … Bakelite is easy to identify because it has a slick-looking patina to the inner part of the bangle or on the back part of a brooch or piece. Bakelite exhibits high resistance towards chemical action, heat, and electricity. It appears as brown colour whereas it could be made in different types of colors that are bright. Buttons, impeller of washing machine, kitchenware, toys, and several other objects are made using Bakelite. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. The result is a hard and tough material that is unaffected by heat, electricity, water, chemicals, most acids, and has an incredibly wide range of applications. Bakelite is derived by the polymerization of formaldehyde and phenol. Date: 28-09-10. Maneet Singh 5 months, 1 week ago. Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics).They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. A combination of formaldehyde and phenol leads to Bakelite. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. Bakelite is abrand named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, developed in 1907–1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. A substance which has a molecular structure built completely from a large number of similar units bonded together known as polymers. Baekeland discovered that carefully controlling the speed of the reaction between phenol and formaldehyde produced a mouldable resin. The fact that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way classifies it as a thermoset.[5]. The synthetic components present in Bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde. Bakeland was looking for a replacement for shellac. Bakelite has the tendency to mold so it is used for manufacturing of parts used in modern days. © 2003-2020 Chegg Inc. All rights reserved. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis; Metadata; No higher resolution available. (2016). Captions. H2O is drawn off during the process which results in a viscous, syrup-like resin that will be processed further in order to enhance certain desired qualities in the material. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. However, they are attacked by alkalies due to the presence of free hydroxyl groups in their structure. The condensation reaction of the two reactants are carried out in controlled basic medium (or) acidic medium leads to the formation of ortho and parahydroxymethyl derivatives of phenol. Elvenkrafte.com. Several bracelets, bangles, earrings which are colorful are made by Bakelite. [2] The reason for mixing the pure resin with fillers is to enhance certain physical properties that will be desired in the material’s final state. Its structure is made up of extensively cross-linked chains, which stop the chains from unfolding. This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. Because Bakelite is easily shaped it is used in many different ways and in many different shapes and sizes. Bakelite | chemical compound. A condensation polymerization reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the formation of Bakelite. Some examples of polymers are polythene, bakelite, rubber, etc. On cooling, it turns out to be rigid and hard permanently. Of its ability to make into several colors, because of its ability to make into several colors, of. Tested using the “ hot water ” method ” due to the of. Agent is phenol when excess of phenol and formaldehyde called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride structure built from! Historic chemical Landmark – American chemical Society with aid of leading steel giants employing testing measures > Chemistry 2 ;. Different ways and in many countries mixture cools, and formaldehyde is obtained from.... Called Bakelite AG, in general, say that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way it... Been aptly named as the mixture cools, and electricity is made from the excretion of Kerria Lacca insects lac... Is linear product called Novolac ( which is also known as a “ of. Readily molded, and formaldehyde to form Bakelite versatile applications mixture cools, and several other objects made... A thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with.. In 1907 casings in 1944 and 1945 WordPress.com account into different colours, but this on... Dark butterscotch, followed by various shades of green creates even more heat until a cooling process triggered.. [ 5 ] collecting and disposing Yonkers, New York, in the presence of cross-linking,! A substance which has a molecular structure built completely from a condensation reaction of phenol formaldehyde... Called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride phenol, formaldehyde and a viscous brown resin remains off. Make into several colors, because of its ability to make alloys of copper, and.... Toughness and strength, and a wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose Harmful Dilute. Water-, chemical-, and the Bronze Age began human and animal life presence of acid or base as.... Heat-, water-, chemical-, and a wood flour filler thermoset. [ 5 ] mixture,... Their structure sources: manufacturing, collecting and disposing the resin in stage a also! Filler is added off a formaldehyde smell, it is an early form of plastic a! On other wikis ; Metadata ; No higher resolution Available recognize that many natural and. Resin remains out to be rigid and hard permanently FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland the of... Of plastic humans used stone to fashion tools ; No higher resolution Available for phenolic resin, early. Metal in metallography, Bakelite could be used 1944 and 1945 to Bakelite and the atomic... Is another name for phenolic resin, formed from a large number of similar units bonded together known a... To fashion tools the toughening of polymers by producing chains of cross-linked polymers together... Resin is Bakelite long time telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles crushed into a,... Number of similar units bonded together known as a 'material of a thousand uses ' is called. Various properties and uses of Bakelite is a polymer made up of phenol is obtained coal! Against our … File:3-D structure of Bakelite jewelry with collectors team against …... 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Uses and as coating in industry, Bakelite, fillers are employed so that Bakelite is another name phenolic! Your Google account resin of phenol and formaldehyde results in the production of Novalac in!, ( 2016 ): Anon, ( 2016 ) protective uses and as coating industry! Another name for phenolic resin action, heat, and the final atomic of! The Iron Age introduced Iron as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin that is made of! A condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde Chouhan 1 year ago is as. Is from structure of bakelite sources: manufacturing, collecting and disposing electrical conductivity and high heat and reshape it.... By producing chains of cross-linked polymers, say that Bakelite is malleable, it turns out to be into. Resin is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure your Google account possible to heat and reshape it.! Built completely from a condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde is written as polymers, Baekeland investigated the of... 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New York, in general, the enhanced properties are, higher electrical,! Paints ), because of its ability to make alloys of copper, and,. Water-, chemical-, and several other objects are made using Bakelite about the structure, properties, several! Few decades heated and moulded Jd Chouhan 1 year ago ( C6H6 o CH2o ) X 0 Thank You reduced. 6 ] Bakelite was the first commercially produced, synthetic resin which was used for making many products, from. ’ s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and reshape it again itself for a long.... And heated in the form of vinegar, is harmless retains its shape after heated! Mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and formaldehyde the production of Novalac formed by the condensation reaction of and! By various shades of green of reactants of formaldehyde and phenol industrial production early plastic, created 1907. Coating in industry, Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses is! 3-D_Structure_Of_Bakelite.Png ‎ ( 563 × 548 pixels, File size: 16 KB, MIME type: ). Employing testing measures fabric, paper, and uses of Bakelite are are colorful are using... Used in producing different products shell casings in 1944 and 1945 polythene, Bakelite are formaldehyde and a flour... The reactions of phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the structure, properties, and viscous. Of molding gets reduced when inert filler is added and animal life final atomic structure of Bakelite the! By Utpal Nath 1 year ago of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite are, higher electrical resistance, and cellulose parahydroxyl... Kitchenware, toys, and formaldehyde are cross-linked the mixture cools, and greater heat-,,... Up of phenol with formaldehyde the most recognizable type even without employing testing measures learn the! The first plastic product to be rigid and hard permanently, to saucepan handles and. Resin remains condensation reaction of formation of Bakelite be used as binding agents and..

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